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Boxer (dog)
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Brindle Boxers with natural and cropped ears
Alternative names
German BoxerDeutscher Boxer
Country of origin
Classification and breed standards
Group 2 Section 2 #144
Group 6 (Utility)
Group 3 - Working Dogs
KC (UK):
Guardian Dogs
Developed in Germany, the Boxer is a breed of stocky, medium-sized, short-haired dog. The coat is smooth and fawn or brindled, with or without white markings. Boxers are brachycephalic, and have a square muzzle, mandibular prognathism (an underbite), very strong jaws and a powerful bite ideal for hanging on to large prey. The Boxer was bred from the Bulldog and the now extinct Bullenbeisser and is part of the Molosser group.
The Boxer was first exhibited in a dog show for St. Bernards at Munich in 1895, the first Boxer club being founded the next year. Based on 2006 American Kennel Club statistics, Boxers are the seventh most popular breed of dog in the United States—a position they have held since 2002—with approximately 35,388 new dog registrations during the year.[1].
1 Appearance
1.1 Coat and colors
1.2 Size
2 Temperament
3 History
3.1 Early genealogy
3.2 Breed name
4 Health
5 Uses
6 Famous Boxers
7 Celebrities who own Boxers
8 Media
9 References
10 External links
10.1 Clubs, Associations, and Societies

[edit] Appearance

Head and body proportions.
The head is the most distinctive feature of the Boxer. The breed standard dictates that it must be in perfect proportion to the body and above all it must never be too light.[2] The greatest value is to be placed on the muzzle being of correct form and in absolute proportion to the skull. The length of the muzzle to the whole of the head should be as 1:3. Folds are always indicated from the root of the nose running downwards on both sides of the muzzle, and the tip of the nose should lie somewhat higher than the root of the muzzle. In addition a Boxer should be slightly prognathous, i.e., the lower jaw should protrude beyond the upper jaw and bend slightly upwards in what is commonly called an underbite or "undershot bite".[3]
Boxers were originally a docked and cropped breed, and this tradition is still maintained in some countries. However, due to pressure from veterinary associations, animal rights groups and the general public, both cropping of the ears and docking of the tail have been prohibited in many countries around the world. In the United States and Canada as of 2007, cropped ears are still more common in show dogs. In March of 2005 the AKC breed standard was changed to include a description of the uncropped ear, but to severely penalize an undocked tail.

Boxers are either fawn (middle frame) or brindle (bottom frame), with or without white marks, which, when excessive are conventionally called "white" Boxers (top frame).

[edit] Coat and colors
The Boxer is a short-haired breed, with a shiny, smooth coat that lies tight to the body. The recognized colors are fawn and brindle, often with a white underbelly and white on the front or all four feet. These white markings, called flash, often extend onto the neck or face, and dogs that have these markings are known as "flashy". "Fawn" denotes a range of color, the tones of which may be described variously as light tan or yellow, reddish tan, mahogany or stag/deer red, and dark honey-blonde. In the UK, fawn Boxers are typically rich in color and are called "red". "Brindle" refers to a dog with black stripes on a fawn background. Some brindle Boxers are so heavily striped that they give the appearance of "reverse brindling", fawn stripes on a black body; these dogs are conventionally called "reverse brindles", but that is actually a misnomer - they are still fawn dogs with black stripes. In addition, the breed standards state that the fawn background must clearly contrast with or show through the brindling, so a dog that is too heavily brindled may be disqualified by the breed standard. The Boxer does not carry the gene for a solid black coat color and therefore purebred black Boxers do not exist.
Boxers with white markings covering more than one-third of their coat - conventionally called "white" Boxers - are neither albino nor rare; approximately 20-25% of all Boxers born are white.[4] Genetically, these dogs are either fawn or brindle, with excessive white markings overlying the base coat color. Like fair-skinned humans, white Boxers have a higher risk of sunburn and associated skin cancers than colored Boxers. The extreme piebald gene, which is responsible for white markings in Boxers, is linked to congenital sensorineural deafness in dogs. It is estimated that about 18% of white Boxers are deaf in one or both ears,[5] though Boxer Rescue organizations see about double that number. [6], [7] In the past, breeders often euthanized white puppies at birth; today, most breeders place white puppies in pet homes with spay/neuter agreements. White Boxers are disqualified from conformation showing by the breed standard, and are prohibited from breeding by every national Boxer club in the world. They can compete in non-conformation events such as obedience and agility, and like their colored counterparts do quite well as service and therapy dogs.

[edit] Size
An adult Boxer typically weighs between 55 and 70 lbs (25 and 32 kg). Adult male Boxers are between 23 and 25 inches (57 and 63 cm) tall at the withers; adult females are between 21 to 23½ inches (53 and 60 cm).

[edit] Temperament

The character of the Boxer is of the greatest importance and demands the most solicitous attention. He is renowned from olden times for his great love and faithfulness to his master and household. He is harmless in the family, but distrustful of strangers, bright and friendly of temperament at play, but brave and determined when aroused. His intelligence and willing tractability, his modesty and cleanliness make him a highly desirable family dog and cheerful companion. He is the soul of honesty and loyalty, and is never false or treacherous even in his old age. ~1938 AKC Boxer breed standard[8]

Boxers are a bright, energetic and playful breed and tend to be very good with children. Boxers have earned a slight reputation of being "headstrong", which can be related to inappropriate obedience training. Boxers are very smart, but also very stubborn. They will listen to the voice that they find familiar. Owing to their intelligence and working breed characteristics, training based on the use of corrections often has limited usefulness. Boxers often respond much better to positive reinforcement techniques such as clicker training. The Boxer by nature is not an aggressive or vicious breed, but needs socialistion to tolerate other dogs well.[9] Their sometimes over-protective, territorial and dominating attitude is often most intense in males. Boxers are generally patient with smaller dogs but can be dominant with larger dogs of the same sex.
Boxers appear more comfortable with companionship, in either human or canine form. They are very active dogs which require a great deal of exercise.

[edit] History
The Boxer is part of the Molosser group, developed in Germany in the late 1800s from the now extinct Bullenbeisser, a dog of Mastiff descent, and Bulldogs brought in from England. The Bullenbeisser had been working as a hunting dog for centuries, employed in the pursuit of bear, wild boar, and deer. Its task was to seize the prey and hold it until the hunters arrived. In later years, faster dogs were favored and a smaller Bullenbeisser was bred in Brabant, in northern Belgium. It is generally accepted that the Brabanter Bullenbeisser was a direct ancestor of today's Boxer.[10]

Boxers on the first Boxer exhibition, Munich 1895
In 1894, three Germans by the name of Roberth, Konig, and Hopner decided to stabilize the breed and put it on exhibition at a dog show. This was done in Munich in 1895, and the next year they founded the first Boxer Club, the Deutscher Boxer Club. In 1898 was born the historically important Meta von der Passage, a brindle and white parti-colored bitch, from which almost all Boxers today can trace their origins. The Club went on to publish the first Boxer breed standard in 1902, a detailed document that has not been changed much to this day.[11]
The breed was introduced to other parts of Europe in the late 19th century and to the United States around the turn of the century. The American Kennel Club (AKC) registered the first Boxer in 1904, and recognized the first Boxer champion, Dampf vom Dom, in 1915. The Boxer Cross Great Dane and Akc Modern-day English Bulldogs.
During World War I, the Boxer was co-opted for military work, acting as a valuable messenger dog, pack-carrier, attack dog, and guard dog. It was not until after World War II that the Boxer became popular around the world. Boxer mascots, taken home by returning soldiers, introduced the dog to a much wider audience and it soon became a favorite as a companion, a show dog, and a guard dog.

[edit] Early genealogy

Boxer early genealogy chart
The German citizen George Alt, a Munich resident, mated a brindle-colored bitch imported from France named Flora with a local dog of unknown ancestry, known simply as "Boxer", resulting in a fawn-and-white male, named "Lechner's Box" after its owner. This dog was mated with his own dam Flora, and one of its offspring was a bitch called Alt's Schecken. George Alt mated Schecken with a Bulldog named Dr. Toneissen's Tom to produce the historically significant dog ''Mühlbauer's Flocki. Flocki was the first Boxer to enter the German Stud Book after winning the aforementioned show for St. Bernards in Munich 1895, which was the first event to have a class specific for Boxers.[11] [12]
The white bitch Ch. Blanka von Angertor, Flocki's sister, was even more influential when mated with Piccolo von Angertor (Lechner's Box grandson) to produce the predominantly white (parti-colored) bitch Meta von der Passage, which, even bearing little resemblance with the modern Boxer standard (early photographs depicts her as too long, weak-backed and down-faced), is considered the mother of the breed.[13][14] John Wagner, on his The Boxer (first published in 1939) said the following regarding this bitch:
"Meta von der Passage played the most important role of the five original ancestors. Our great line of sires all trace directly back to this female. She was a substantially built, low to the ground, brindle and white parti-colour, lacking in underjaw and exceedingly lippy. As a producing bitch few in any breed can match her record. She consistently whelped puppies of marvelous type and rare quality. Those of her offspring sired by Flock St. Salvator and Wotan dominate all present-day pedigrees. Combined with Wotan and Mirzl children, they made the Boxer."[15]

[edit] Breed name
The name "Boxer" is supposedly derived from the breed's tendency to begin a fight by standing on its hind legs and "boxing" with its front paws. According to Andrew H. Brace on his "Pet owner's guide to the Boxer" this theory is the least plausible explanation.[13] He claims "it's unlikely that a nation so permeated with nationalism would give to one of its most famous breeds a name so obviously anglicised".
German linguistic sciences and historical evidence date from the 18th century the earliest written source for the word Boxer, found in a text in the "Deutsches Fremdwörterbuch" (The German Dictionary of Foreign Languages),[16] which cites an author named Musäus of 1782 writing "daß er aus Furcht vor dem großen Baxer Salmonet ... sich auf einige Tage in ein geräumiges Packfaß ... absentiret hatte". At that time the spelling "baxer" equalled "boxer". Both the verb ("boxen") and the noun ("Boxer") were common German language as early as the late 18th century. The term "Boxl", also written "Buxn" or "Buchsen", in the Bavarian dialect means "short (leather) trousers" or "underwear". The very similarly sounding term "Boxerl" is also Bavarian dialect and an endearing term for "Boxer".[17] More in line with historical facts, Brace states that there exist many other theories to explain the origin of the breed name, from which he favors the one claiming the smaller Bullenbeisser (Brabanter) were also known as "Boxl" and that Boxer is just a corruption of that word.[17]
In the same vein runs a theory based on the fact that there were a group of dogs known as "Bierboxer" in Munich by the time of the breed's development. These dogs were the result from mixes of Bullenbeisser and other similar breeds. Bier (beer) probably refers to the Biergarten, the typical Munich beergarden, an open-air restaurant where people used to take their dogs along. The nickname "Deutscher Boxer" was derived from bierboxer and Boxer could also be a corruption of the former or a contraction of the latter.[18]
"Boxer" is also the name of a dog owned by John Peerybingle, the main character on the best selling 1845 book The Cricket on the Hearth by Charles Dickens, which is evidence that "Boxer" was commonly used as a dog name by the early 19th century, before the establishment of the breed by the end of that same century.
The name of the breed could also be simply due to the names of the very first known specimens of the breed (Lechner's Box, for instance).

[edit] Health
See also: Dog health
Boxers are prone to develop cancers, heart conditions such as Aortic Stenosis and Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy (the so-called "Boxer Cardiomyopathy"), hypothyroidism, hip dysplasia, and degenerative myelopathy; other conditions that may be seen are gastric dilatation and torsion (bloat), intestinal problems, and allergies (although these may be more related to diet than breed).[19][20] Entropion is occasionally seen, a malformation of the eyelid requiring surgical correction, and some lines have a tendency to develop spondylosis deformans, a fusing of the spine. [21] Responsible breeders use available tests to screen their breeding stock before breeding, and in some cases throughout the life of the dog, in an attempt to minimize the occurrence of these diseases in future generations.[22]
Boxers are an athletic breed, and proper exercise and conditioning is important for their continued health and longevity. Care must be taken not to over-exercise young dogs, as this may damage growing bones; however once mature Boxers can be excellent jogging or running companions. Because of their brachycephalic head, they do not do well with high heat or humidity, and common sense should prevail when exercising a Boxer in these conditions.

Fawn Boxer in dog agility show

[edit] Uses
Boxers are friendly, lively companions that are popular as family dogs. Their suspicion of strangers, alertness, agility, and strength make them formidable guard dogs. They sometimes appear at dog agility or obedience trials and flyball events. These strong and intelligent animals have also been used as service dogs, guide dogs for the blind, therapy dogs, police dogs in K9 units, and occasionally herding cattle or sheep. The versatility of Boxers was recognized early on by the military, which has used them as valuable messenger dogs, pack carriers, and attack and guard dogs in times of war. Boxers have an average lifespan of 10-12 years.


Não se trata de uma raça antiga, sua criação data do fim do século passado, na Alemanha.O Boxer sempre foi um cão muito considerado em todo o mundo, atualmente, devido a uma série de incidentes ocorridos com cães de outras raças, em alguns lugares chegando mesmo a serem proibidas, a atenção voltou-se para o Boxer, por ser um cão de guarda e defesa com muita agilidade, firmeza de caráter e fidelidade, sendo ao mesmo tempo um excelente cão de companhia, de boa índole e muito dócil com as crianças, ideal para casas como também para chácaras, sítios e fazendas.No Brasil, ele está mais que consagrado, figurando entre as raças com o maior número de nascimentos registrados. Alerta e protetor, é inofensivo em família, porém desconfiado com os estranhos, de temperamento sereno e afetuoso, facilmente adestrável, muito limpo, fato que vem aumentando a sua procura para apartamentos. "É importante ressaltar que ao comentarmos das qualidades excepcionais do Boxer, estamos nos referindo à cães de boa procedência e dentro do padrão da raça, o que dá a certeza que o filhote terá um desenvolvimento esperado inclusive no que diz respeito à sua índole e temperamento que devem ser equilibrados.Infelizmente, devido a sua grande popularidade, existem hoje criações paralelas sem nenhum critério de seleção, comprometendo seriamente a degeneração parcial ou até total da raça, podendo gerar incidentes ou até acidentes sérios.É recomendável cautela na compra de um exemplar de um filhote." O Boxer é um cão de estatura média e pêlo curto, robusto, de estrutura curta, quadrada e ossos fortes. As cores são dourado em vários tons e tigrado, que pode ser de dois tipos: o primeiro deles com listas escuras claramente definidas sobre o fundo dourado e o segundo tipo tem o que chamamos de tigrado reverso ou invertido, o efeito aqui é de um fundo mais escuro com listas ou riscas de dourado mais claro. As marcações brancas não devem exceder 1/3 do total da pelagem.Quanto ao corte de orelhas, é opcional e deve ser feita entre os 70 e 120 dias de idade.

Birmania off cat

Origin and History according to legend, existed in a temple a white cat, of for the length, that was the accompanying fidiciary office of a priest. When this died, assassinated for invaders, the cat jumped for top of the body of its owner and there it was, to prevent that somebody was come close. At this moment, its pelagem was being cream color. The golden eyes had become blue and the legs, nose, ears and tail, blue - cinereous. But the four feet, that were in contact with the body of the deceased, had remained white. After this, all the other cats created in the temples had been equal it. To that everything indicates, the Sacred one of the Birmânia descends of the cats that were venerated as deuses in the Buddhist temples of the Birmânia (current Myanmar), in Asia, century XV. The priests believed that the fidiciary offices returned to the Land in the form of cats. He has some descriptions of the arrival of the first units of the race to the Europe. One of them was when a good-looking Sacred pregnant woman of the Birmânia, coming in a ship for France, only survivor of all the cats that they had embarked, it came for 1920 return, and thus had been crossed the cats consanguineamente or with other races to improve it. The modern race was established by "Bad Wong", a Sacred one of the Birmânia - led for U.S.A. in 1930 - that was crossed with a Siamês. It is probable that it has had posterior importations of the Birmânia. But the fact is that in 1936 the race already if becomes enough pure to be recognized in U.S.A.. In France, the race was officially recognized in 1952. The French selecting had included in the descent the blood of the Siameses and the white Persians, this last responsible one for the soft and semilong pelagem of the Sacred one of the Birmânia. The history of the race, that divergiu during the last half of the decade of 1940, produced two distinct types of Sacred of the Birmânia: the English cat has a more eastern transport, and the American is more robust. General appearance: they are cats of long coat, showing legs always white (the "gloves"), healthful, muscular, with balanced movement. The pelagem not form we, nor clusters (with exception of the region of the abdomen). The females (ideal weight from 3 kg arriving 5kg, without making look like to be fat person) are well lesser of that the males (that they can arrive 8kg, without making look like to be fat person). The tail is carried erect. Behavior and character: They are not aggressive, they adore the company of human beings and quickly get used with the habits of all the family and also they are adaptam easily to other animals; they are animal sufficiently calm and docile. Adaptam easily in closed, ideal environments for apartments. Head: Fort, of average size and rounded off format; sight of profile, longer than wide. The strong jaws, the chin, developed good and the cheeks, salient. Nose: prolongated, with the nostrils pointing with respect to low; rosada.O can present pigmentação Roman nose is the ideal, without stop, or little marked. Ears: the length is approximately equal to the width in the insertion. The tips round are lnseridas moderately moved away and provided well with tufos of coats. Eyes: rounded off, lightly amendoados, great, always blue (of the preference well dark, most intense possible), independently of the color of the pelagem. Inserted distantes.*É relatively also accepted the blue coloration tending to the lilac, that is raríssima. Neck: of average, well muscular length. Body: With strong, rectangular ossatura. Tail: of average length, in ratio with the body, they form a pen Size: Of medium the great one. Pelagem: of average length for long, silky texture. The necklace is desirable, especially in the males. Less thick from the one than of the Persians, not form we e, therefore, excuses the frequent escovações very. To the being touched with the closed eyes it must give the sensation of pure silk. Lacks: White points in the dark tips, dark spots in the abdomen and womb, high gloves excessively. Colors: Currently we have 40 more common colors in its excessively variações.As are: The Seal (initial color of the Sacred one), the Blue, the Chocolate and the Lilac.Há some years we had the controversial greater for the acceptance of the Lynx gene and Red, that is not original of the race, or either, had been necessary crossings with other races to bring this gene to the Sagrado.Além of the basic colors, has them in the Tortie (a mesclada basic color with the cream), the Lynx (in stripes) and the Torbie (Tortie Tabby). General Cares: Escovações weekly, to prevent the formation of balls of for (folders also can be used that serve for these biweekly or monthly fim);Banhos if they make necessários;Em general is a strong cat, but as all the race cats, must take all the doses of vaccines and strengthen all year. Feeding: We recommend the use of dry Ration, high quality. Peculiarities: The Sacred ones of the Birmânia, for being cats "ColorPoint", as well as the siameses, are born white, and only in some weeks we can start to see the color of the cat, depending on the marking... Therefore, the clubs recommend that the cat has between 1 and ½ and 3 to effect the register, but exactly thus the color continues to become gloomy up to one 2 years of age.

Sagrado da birmânia

Origem e HistóriaSegundo a lenda, existia num templo um gato branco, de pelo comprido, que era o fiel companheiro de um sacerdote. Quando este morreu, assassinado por invasores, o gato pulou para cima do corpo de seu dono e aí ficou, para evitar que alguém se aproximasse. Nesse momento, sua pelagem foi ficando cor de creme. Os olhos dourados tornaram-se azuis e as patas, nariz, orelhas e cauda, azuis - cinzentos. Apenas os quatro pés, que estavam em contato com o corpo do defunto, permaneceram brancos. Depois disso, todos os outros gatos criados nos templos ficaram iguais a ele.Ao que tudo indica, o Sagrado da Birmânia descende dos gatos que eram venerados como deuses nos templos budistas da Birmânia (atual Myanmar), na Ásia, no século XV. Os sacerdotes acreditavam que os fiéis retornavam à Terra na forma de gatos. Há várias descrições da chegada dos primeiros exemplares da raça à Europa.Uma delas foi quando uma gata grávida Sagrado da Birmânia, vinda num navio para a França, única sobrevivente de todos os gatos que embarcaram , veio por volta de 1920, e assim foram cruzados os gatos consanguineamente ou com outras raças para aprimorá-lo.A raça moderna foi fundada por "Wong Mau", um Sagrado da Birmânia - levado para os EUA em 1930 - que foi cruzado com um Siamês. É provável que tenha havido importações posteriores da Birmânia. Mas o fato é que em 1936 a raça já se tornara suficientemente pura para ser reconhecida nos EUA.Na França, a raça foi oficialmente reconhecida em 1952. Os selecionadores franceses incluíram na descendência o sangue dos Siameses e dos Persas brancos, este último responsável pela pelagem macia e semilonga do Sagrado da Birmânia. A história da raça, que divergiu durante a última metade da década de 1940, produziu dois tipos distintos de Sagrado da Birmânia: o gato inglês tem um porte mais oriental, e o americano é mais robusto.Aparência geral: são gatos de pêlo longo, exibindo patas sempre brancas (as "luvas"), saudáveis, musculosos, com movimentação equilibrada. A pelagem não forma nós, nem cachos (com exceção da região do abdômen). As fêmeas (peso ideal a partir de 3 kg chegando a 5kg, sem aparentar ser gordo) são bem menores do que os machos (que podem chegar a 8kg, sem aparentar ser gordo). A cauda é portada ereta.Comportamento e caráter: Não são agressivos, adoram a companhia de seres humanos e acostumam-se rapidamente com os hábitos de toda a família e também se adaptam facilmente a outros animais; são animais bastante tranqüilos e dóceis.Adaptam-se facilmente em ambientes fechados, ideais para apartamentos.Cabeça: Forte, de tamanho médio e formato arredondado; vista de perfil, mais longa que larga. As mandíbulas fortes, o queixo, bem desenvolvido e as bochechas, salientes.Nariz: alongado, com as narinas apontando para baixo; pode apresentar pigmentação rosada.O nariz romano é o ideal, sem stop, ou pouco marcado.Orelhas: o comprimento é aproximadamente igual à largura na inserção. As pontas são redondas. lnseridas moderadamente afastadas e bem providas de tufos de pêlos.Olhos: arredondados, levemente amendoados, grandes, sempre azuis (de preferência bem escuros, o mais intenso possível), independentemente da cor da pelagem. Inseridos relativamente distantes.*É também aceito a coloração azul tendendo ao lilás, que é raríssima.Pescoço: de comprimento médio, bem musculoso.Corpo: Com ossatura forte, retangular.Cauda: de comprimento médio, em proporção com o corpo, formam uma plumaTamanho: De médio a grande.Pelagem: de comprimento médio para longo, textura sedosa. O colar é desejável, especialmente nos machos. Menos espessa do que a dos persas, não forma nós e, por isso, dispensa as escovações muito freqüentes. Ao ser tocada com os olhos fechados deve dar a sensação de seda pura.Faltas: Pontos brancos nas pontas escuras, manchas escuras no abdômen e ventre, luvas altas demais.Cores: Atualmente temos 40 cores em suas demais variações.As mais comuns são: O Seal (cor inicial do Sagrado), o Blue, O Chocolate e o Lilac.Há alguns anos tivemos a maior polêmica para a aceitação do gene Lynx e Red, que não são originais da raça, ou seja, foram necessários cruzamentos com outras raças para trazer esse gene ao Sagrado.Além das cores básicas, as temos no Tortie (uma cor básica mesclada com o creme), o Lynx (em listras) e o Torbie (Tortie Tabby).Cuidados Gerais: Escovações semanais, para evitar a formação de bolas de pelo (podem ser usadas também pastas que servem para este fim);Banhos quinzenais ou mensais se fazem necessários;Em geral é um gato forte, mas como todos os gatos de raça, deve tomar todas as doses das vacinas e reforçar todo ano.Alimentação: Recomendamos o uso de Ração seca, de alta qualidade.Peculiaridades:Os Sagrados da Birmânia, por serem gatos "ColorPoint", assim como os siameses, nascem brancos, e apenas em algumas semanas podemos começar a ver a cor do gato, dependendo da marcação...Por isso, os clubes recomendam que o gato tenha entre 1 e ½ e 3 para efetuar o registro, mas mesmo assim a cor continua a escurecer até uns 2 anos de idade.

domingo, 25 de novembro de 2007


dachshund is a short-legged, elongated dog breed of the hound family. The breed's name is German and literally means "badger dog," from (der) Dachs, badger, and (der) Hund, dog. The standard size was developed to scent, chase, and flush badgers and other burrow-dwelling animals, while the miniature was to hunt rabbits. Due to the long, narrow build, they are sometimes referred to as a wiener dog, hot dog, or sausage dog. Notwithstanding the German origin of the dachshund's name, within Germany the breed is known—both formally and informally—as the Dackel or Teckel.
[edit] Appearance and Size
Dachshunds come in three sizes. A full-grown standard dachshund averages 16 to 28 pounds. (7 to 12.7 kg), while the miniature variety typically weighs less than 11 lb. The kaninchen weighs 7-9 lb. (5 kg)[1].

A black and tan standard Dachshund
According to kennel club standards, the miniature variety differs from the full-size only by size and weight, thus offspring from miniature parents must never weigh more than the miniature standard to be considered a miniature as well[2].
H. L. Mencken said that "A dachshund is a half-dog high and a dog-and-a-half long," which is their main claim to fame, although many poems and songs refer to them as "two dogs long." This characteristic has led them to be quite a recognizable breed and featured in many a joke and cartoon, particularly The Far Side by Gary Larson.

[edit] Coat and color
Dachshunds have a wide range of colouration. Dominant colors and patterns are red and black-and-red (often referred to as black-and-tan). Also occurring are cream, blue, wild boar, chocolate brown, fawn, brindle, piebald, and a lighter "boar" red[3]. The reds range from coppers to deep rusts, with somewhat common black hairs peppered along the back, tail, face, and ear edges, lending much character and an almost burnished appearance; this is often desirable and is referred to among breeders and enthusiasts as a "stag" or an "overlay."

Black and Tan Double dapple smooth-haired miniature dachshund with a blue eye and brown eye
Solid black and solid chocolate-brown dachshunds occur and, even though dogs with such coloration are often considered handsome, the colors are nonstandard – that is, the dogs are disqualified from conformance competitions in the U.S. and Canada. Additionally, according to the Conformation judges of the DCA (Dachshand Club of America), and the AKC (American Kennel Club) assert the Piebald pattern a nonstandard [2] and has voted to dismiss this pattern from competition.
Light-colored dachshunds usually sport light grey, light hazel, green or blue eyes, rather than the various shades of brown. They can also have eyes of two different colors; in rare cases, such as the double-dappled coloration (called merle in other dog breeds[4]), dachshunds can have a blue and brown eye. Color aside, this eye condition has led to the double-dapple coat being disfavored among breeders and owners.
Dachshunds come in three coat varieties. The most common and associated with the dachshund is the smooth coated dog. The next most recognised is the long coat. The wire-haired dachshund is least common. Many people cannot recognize wire-hairs as dachshunds and can be mistaken as other kinds of dogs[5].

[edit] Temperament

The miniature dachshund.
Dachshunds are playful, fun dogs, known for their propensity to chase small animals, birds and tennis balls with great determination and ferocity. Many dachshunds are strong-headed or stubborn, making them a challenge to train. Dachshunds have been known to have a liking to dig holes in the garden, or chase small animals such as birds, squirrels, or lizards. They have a particularly loud bark, making dachshunds good watchdogs. Dachshunds are known for their devotion and loyalty to their owners. If left alone many dachshunds will whine until they have companionship. Some dachshunds are prone to separation anxiety and may chew objects in the house to relieve stress.
According to the American Kennel Club’s breed standards, "the dachshund is clever, lively and courageous to the point of rashness, persevering in above and below ground work, with all the senses well-developed. Any display of shyness is a serious fault."[6] Their temperament and body language give the impression that they do not know or care about their relatively small and comical stature. Indulged dachshunds may become snappy[7]. Fanciers of the breed often say that "Dachshunds are big dogs in small packages".
The dachshund's temperament may vary greatly from dog to dog. Seemingly most dachshunds do not like unfamiliar people, and will growl or bark in response. Although the dachshund is generally an energetic dog, some are laid back. Due to this dog's behavior, it is not the dog for everyone. A bored dachshund will become destructive. If raised improperly, dachshunds can become aggressive or fearful. They require a caring owner that understands their need to have entertainment and exercise. Some may not be good with children, and they may bite an unfamiliar child.

[edit] Health

Wire-haired dachshund
The breed is known to have spinal problems, especially intervertebral disk disease (IVDD), due in part to an extremely long spinal column and short rib cage[8]. The risk of injury can be worsened by obesity, which places greater strain on the vertebrae. In order to prevent injury, it is recommended that dachshunds be discouraged from jumping and taking stairs, and encouraged to instead take the elevator (though some veterinarians say that slow stair-climbing is unlikely to lead to injury). (Holding the dog properly is important, with both front and rear portions of the body fully supported.) However, according to the same article above, dachshunds that climb stairs regularly may actually be less prone to IVDD, probably because the exercise helps to keep them fitter and healthier, and positive correlations were found between physically fit dogs and a lower incidence of IVDD.
As it has become increasingly apparent that the occurrence and severity of these spinal problems, or intervertebral disk disease, is largely hereditary, responsible breeders are working to eliminate this characteristic in the breed. Treatment consists of various combinations of crate confinement and courses of anti-inflammatory medications (steroids). Serious cases may require surgery to remove the troublesome disk contents[9]. Some double dapples have problems with deafness and blindness. Therefore they need an owner who understands a disabled dog's special needs. Generally responsible breeders refuse to breed this coloration because of this.

[edit] History

Old-style dachshund showing the longer legs. Walter Rothschild Zoological Museum, Tring, England
Some have theorized that the early roots of the dachshund go back to Ancient Egypt, where engravings were made featuring short-legged hunting dogs[10]. But in its modern incarnation, the dachshund is a creation of European breeders, and includes elements of German, French, and English hounds and terriers. Dachshunds have been kept by royal courts all over Europe, including that of Queen Victoria, who was particularly enamored of the breed.
The first verifiable references to the dachshund, originally named the "Tachs Kriecher" (badger crawler) or "Tachs Krieger" (badger warrior), came from books written in the early 1700s. Prior to that, there exist references to "badger dogs" and "hole dogs", but these likely refer to purposes rather than to specific breeds. The original German dachshunds were larger than the modern full-size variety, weighing between 30 and 40 lb. (14 to 18 kg), and originally came in straight-legged and crook-legged varieties (the modern dachshund is descended from the latter). Though the breed is famous for its use in exterminating badgers and badger-baiting, dachshunds were also commonly used for rabbit and fox hunting, for locating wounded deer, and in packs were known to hunt game as large as wild boar and as fierce as the wolverine.
Double-dapple dachshunds are prone to eye disease and therefore are rare. It is generally believed that the breed was introduced to the United States between 1879 and 1885

[edit] Symbol of Germany

Waldi, the mascot of the 1972 Summer Olympic Games
Dachshunds have traditionally been viewed as a symbol of Germany, despite their pan-European heritage. During World War I many Americans began referring to dachshunds as "liberty pups." Political cartoonists commonly used the image of the dachshund to ridicule Germany. The stigma of the association was revived to a lesser extent during World War II, though it was comparatively short-lived. German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel was known for keeping dachshunds.
For this association with Germany, the dachshund was chosen to be the first official mascot for the 1972 Summer Olympics, with the name Waldi.
The flap-down ears and famous curved tail of the dachshund have deliberately been bred into the dog. In the case of the ears, this is so that grass seeds, dirt and other matter do not enter into the ear canal. The curved tail is dual-purposed: to be seen more easily in long grass and, in the case of burrowing dachshunds, to help haul the dog out if it becomes stuck in a burrow.[citation needed]

[edit] Sports
Some people train and enter their dachshund to compete in dachshund racing, such as the Wiener Nationals. Several races across the country routinely draw several thousand attendees, including races in Buda, Texas, Davis, California, Los Alamitos, California, Findlay, Ohio, Oklahoma City, OK, Kansas City, KS, and Shakopee, MN. Despite the popularity of these events, the Dachshund Club of America opposes "wiener racing", as many greyhound tracks use the events to draw large crowds to their facilities. The DCA also is worried about potential injuries to dogs, due to their predisposition to back injuries.
Another favorite sport is earthdog trials, in which dachshunds enter tunnels with dead ends and obstacles attempting to locate an artificial bait or live but caged and protected mice. Dachshunds, being true scent hounds, also compete in scent tracking events, with a national championship sponsored every year by the DCA.

[edit] Dackel versus Teckel
In Germany dachshunds are widely named as 'Dackel' (both singular and plural). To be classified as a full Teckel, these dogs must undergo Blood Tracking tests. Classically, any dog of dackel heritage is given an official tattoo upon one ear. After suitable training, the dog must then follow a blood trail that is at least 48 hours old successfully to its conclusion. Once this is completed, another tattoo is marked on the other ear to denote full Teckel rank. As 'Teckel' are bred for hunting purposes, teckels tattooed or not, tend to be visibly larger in their chests than their dackel counterparts, though marginally shorter in length.

[edit] Legend

A long-haired dachshund with puppies.
See also: Hot dog#History
The modern American hot dog may be the descendant of the "dachshund" or "little-dog" sausage.[11]

[edit] Popularity
Dachshunds are a popular pet in the United States, ranking 6th in the most recent AKC registration statistics.[12] They are popular with urban and apartment dwellers, ranking among the top ten most popular breeds in 39 of 50 major US cities surveyed by the AKC.[13] One will find varying degrees of organized local dachshund clubs in most major American cities, including New York, New Orleans, Los Angeles, and Chicago. American dachshund enthusiasts will enjoy their visits to overseas, as the breed's popularity is legion in places such as Germany, France, Switzerland, Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, and Japan.

[edit] Miscellaneous
Having been bred at one point as Wild Boar hounds, the Teckel breed of these dogs have a tendency to roll on their backs. This 'cute behaviour' has rather morbid beginnings. The dog would be sent into the undergrowth, to flush out the boar. The boar would, upon seeing the smaller dog, give chase. The dog would lead the boar towards the huntsman, whereupon it would throw itself upon its back. The boar would then pass over the dog, who would then attempt to either attack the throat or the genitalia of the passing boar, thus wounding the boar sufficiently for the huntsman to kill their prey.[citation needed]
During World War I the dachshunds' numbers declined because they originated in Germany and anything having to do with Germany was disliked. However, the dachshunds' charm brought a resurgence during the Roaring Twenties.[citation needed]

[edit] Famous and Fictional Dachshunds
The book Dumpling. Made by Dick-King-Smith.
Lump, the pet of Pablo Picasso, who was thought to have inspired some of his artwork. (Pronounced: loomp; German for "Rascal")
Stanley and Boodgie, immortalized on canvas by owner David Hockney, and published in the book David Hockney's Dog Days .
Wadl and Hexl, Kaiser Wilhelm II's famous ferocious pair. Upon arriving at Archduke Franz Ferdinand's country seat, château Konopiste, on a semi-official visit, they promptly proceeded to do away with one of the Austro-Hungarian Crown Prince's priceless golden pheasants, thereby almost causing an international incident[citation needed]
Senta, Kaiser Wilhelm II's companion during World War I and his exile to Huis Doorn. Senta died in 1927 at age 20 and is buried in the park of Huis Doorn, near the Kaiser's grave.
Hot Dog in renegade Krypto the Superdog
Schotzie in That 70s Show
Itchy Itchiford in All Dogs Go to Heaven
Boots in Emergency!
Little Dog in 2 Stupid Dogs
Slinky in Toy Story and "Toy Story 2"
Buster in Toy Story 2
Wiener Dog, the name of Norm Henderson's dachshund on The Norm Show
Mr. Weenie in Open Season
Jorge in Clifford's Puppy Days
Waldi, the mascot of the 1972 Summer Olympics
Dinah the Dachshund
Pretzel in Pretzel by H.A. and Margaret Rey
Hundley in Curious George by H.A. and Margaret Rey
Weenie, the pet of Oswald the Octopus, Oswald (TV series)
Oscar, in the comic strip Liberty Meadows.
Schnitzel von Krumm, in the Hairy Maclary series of children's picture books by Lynley Dodd.
Odie in Garfield The Movie and Garfield: A Tale of Two Kitties.
The dogs of The Ugly Dachshund
Willie from the books by Ezra Jack Keats
Oliver in the anime series Ginga Nagareboshi Gin
Bodo in Hausmeister Krause (a German sitcom)
Origami in Raising Helen
Rufus "The Red" of (Morehead, Kentucky). Credited for saving 4 children from a burning daycare in Kentucky. Has appeared on many talk shows.
Belle Constantine Chappy, [Katakana: ベルコンスタンティンチャピ-] the name of the miniature dachshund owned by Japanese artist, Gackt.
In the early Mickey Mouse comics, Mickey had a dachshund named Weenie.
When Cap Toys resurrected Stretch Armstrong in the 1990s, they also created Stretch's dog, a dachshund named Fetch Armstrong.
Joe, owned by General Claire Lee Chennault and the mascot of Chennault's Flying Tigers of World War II.
Lump, a pet Dachshund owned by Pablo Picasso A Dachshund's Odyssey, by David Douglas Duncan
JONES in the adventures of wiener jones

[edit] References
^ Dachshund Breed Standard. American Kennel Club. Retrieved on July 3, 2007.
^ Dachshund Breed Standard. American Kennel Club. Retrieved on July 23, 2007.
^ Dachshund Colors and Patterns. The Dachshund Magazine Online. Retrieved on July 2, 2007.
^ The Double Dapple. The Dachshund Magazine Online. Retrieved on June 25, 2007.
^ Dachshund Breed Standard. American Kennel Club. Retrieved on July 3, 2007.
^ Dachshund Breed Standard. American Kennel Club. Retrieved on May 14, 2007.
^ Dachshunds. Burke's Backyard with Don Burke. Retrieved on May 14, 2007.
^ V. F. Jensen, A. K. Ersbøll (2000) "Mechanical Factors affecting the Occurrence of Intervertebral Disc Calcification in the Dachshund - a Population Study", Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A 47 (5), 283–296.
^ Sarit Dhupa BVSc, Nita Glickman MS, MPH, David J. Waters DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVS (1999) "Reoperative Neurosurgery in Dogs With Thoracolumbar Disc Disease", Veterinary Surgery 28 (6), 421–428.
^ M. Zedda, P. Manca, V. Chisu, S. Gadau, G. Lepore, A. Genovese, V. Farina (2006) "Ancient Pompeian Dogs - Morphological and Morphometric Evidence for Different Canine Populations, Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia", Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C 35 (5), 319–324.
^ Schmidt, Gretchen (2003). German Pride: 101 Reasons to Be Proud You're German. New York: Citadel Press, 241. ISBN 0806524812.
^ 2006 AKC Dog Registration Statistics
^ 2006 AKC Top Breeds By City

[edit] See also
Nintendogs: Dachshund and Friends

[edit] External links

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North America
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United Kingdom
The Dachshund Club
Dachshund Club of Wales
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Esta raça já foi conhecida como Basset, mas fixou o nome como Dachshund. Em 1994 passou a chamar-se oficialmente Teckel e está entre as 10 raças com o maior número de registros na CBKC.Atualmente, a raça passa por uma reformulação no Brasil com a edição de uma nova tradução feita do mesmo padrão de 1979 da FCI - Federação Cinológica Internacional.As alterações começam pelo nome da raça que passa de Dachshund para Teckel (no padrão original alemão continua sendo Dachshund ou Teckel, nesta ordem).Dachshund tornou-se exclusivamente a denominação do grupo dos Teckels.APARÊNCIAO dachshund é baixinho e possui o corpo alongado, parecendo uma salsicha e de grande atividade. Esta aparência consagrou-o como caçador de animais de toca.Devido ao seu tamanho, exige pouco espaço e é uma excelente opção para pessoas que moram em apartamentos, especialmente porque aprende com facilidade os hábitos de higiene.As variedades formadas pelos 3 tamanhos e seus 3 tipos de pelagem - curta, longa e dura, viraram raças (apesar de continuarem como variedades na Alemanha, pela FCI, e nos EUA). Apresenta-se nas cores: preta, vermelha e tricolor.Após os 18 meses de idade, deve-se fazer uma medição do tórax para determinar o porte:-Standard: perímetro do tórax acima de 35cm e peso máximo de 9kg, sendo ideal entre 6,5 a 7,0 kg);-Anão: perímetro do tórax de até 30cm e peso máximo de 4kg;-Miniatura ou Toy: perímetro do tórax de até 30cm e peso máximo de 3,5kg. Comportamento:- pêlo longo: mais delicado- pêlo duro: late mais TEMPERAMENTOSe, no início, o Dachshund era um valente e destemido caçador, transformou-se num animal de companhia, hábil, inteligente, charmoso e com um olfato apuradíssimo.Devido ao seu tamanho, exige pouco espaço e é uma excelente opção para pessoas que moram em apartamentos, especialmente porque aprende com facilidade os hábitos de higiene.Inteligente, esperto e bastante brincalhão, o Dachshund é também um excelente cão de vigia.Sempre atento, ao menor sinal de aproximação de estranhos late bastante e alto. É um excelente companheiro para crianças e brinca mesmo depois de velho.Convive de forma tranqüila com outros animais e com outros cães mas não foge de uma briga caso seja provocado.Alguns criadores garantem que existem diferenças de temperamento conforme o tipo de pelo, sendo que os de pêlos curtos seriam mais sociáveis e os pêlos duros mais agitados e até mesmo um pouco mais agressivos, mas isso não é comprovado nem mesmo consta do padrão da raça. Outra característica importante da raça é sua independência, o que lhe valeu uma (talvez) injusta fama de desobediente. Na convivência em família ele é um excelente companheiro, gosta e respeita a todos, mas dedica-se a apenas uma pessoa que elege como dono.É preciso saber se impor para que ele obedeça, senão ele ditará as regras, pois, é um cão teimoso e obstinado. Por outro lado, é completamente apaixonado e apegado ao dono.DOENÇASAs mais comuns são: hérnias de disco (por causa da coluna longa), cálculos renais (se a alimentação possuir alto teor de proteína e magnésio), tumores mamários e otites.Evite que ele pule de grandes alturas para evitar problemas na coluna, pois, é muito longa. Acostume-o desde a caminhar por grandes distâncias.


History The Cymric, without a tail, and its shorthaired cousin, the Manx, are among the oldest natural breeds of cats. They are native to the Isle of Man, an island in the Irish Sea between England and Ireland. Geneticists have determined that the cat without a tail occurred as the result of a spontaneous mutation. The Manx was easily established due to the genetic nature of the tailless trait and centuries of inbreeding in an isolated island environment. Both long- and shorthaired cats existed on the Isle of Man before the appearance of the mutant gene for taillessness. When the tailless Cymric appeared, the recessive longhair gene may have been part of the package. Cymrics were first seen in litters from Manx cats in Canada in the l960's and are still seen only in shows in North America. They have yet to receive full status as a champion breed.
Type and characteristics TemperamentIt is a friendly, affectionate, relaxed companion--an easy feline to share a home with. According to some sources the Cymric is somewhat doglike in its habits; it will play "fetch," growl at an unidentified disturbance, and may follow its owner around. This cat is also known for its love of shiny objects--keep an eye on your jewelry! Cymrics like to snooze in laps and high places. Children, dogs, and other cats are taken in stride. They have good mousing ability and enjoy time outdoors, but they are very comfortable in the home as well. They get along well with other animals, including dogs.
Special Observation
Some Cymric cats have neurologic disorders and defecation problems due to spinal defects associated with the gene for taillessness. The tailless Cymric, whose name is derived from the Gaelic word for Wales, is a longhaired version of the Manx. It is a friendly, affectionate, relaxed companion--an easy feline to share a home with. According to some sources the Cymric is somewhat doglike in its habits; it will play "fetch," growl at an unidentified disturbance, and may follow its owner around.
This cat is playful, loves to sit atop high areas and will catch toys and also bury them like a dog.
The Cymric requires daily combing with a medium-toothed comb.